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  • What are the impact of organic impurities (Water) on

    Organic matter derived from decaying vegetation, that delay setting and hardening of concrete & found in fine than in coarse aggregate and. Normally, the strength of concrete based on sand is used as a gauge of the harmful effects of the impurities. Silt, clay and dust may form a coating on aggregate particles, resulting in weakened bond between

  • The effect of organic matter on the setting of soil‐cement

    Later experiments with a natural organic sandy soil showed that the retardation is probably due to an ‘active’ fraction of the organic matter, which affects the setting of cement by adsorbing calcium ions liberated during hydration. The ‘active’ material is produced in the surface soil, where it is associated with a low pH; it is subsequently leached into the subsoil, where it becomes adsorbed as a complex with

  • Concrete: Scientific Principles

    The water causes the hardening of concrete through a process called hydration. Hydration is a chemical reaction in which the major compounds in cement form chemical bonds with water molecules and become hydrates or hydration products. Details of the hydration process are explored in

  • Concrete: Demonstration 2

    Conducting an Organic Matter Test. Objective: The purpose of this demonstration is to determine the viability of an aggregate based on the amount of organic matter present. Materials Needed: Sand A 50:50 mixture of sand and dirt Glass container (10 oz. juice jar or similar size) with lid A 3% solution of sodium hydroxide NaOH (made by dissolving 9 grams of sodium hydroxide, household lye, or

  • Chemical Admixtures The Concrete Portal

    These dispersants are basically surface-active chemicals consisting of long-chain organic molecules, having a polar hydrophilic group (water-attracting, such as –COO-, -SO3-, -NH3+) attached to a non-polar hydrophobic organic chain (water-repelling) with some polar groups (-OH). As shown in Figure 1, the polar groups in the chain get adsorbed on the surface of the cement grains, and the

  • Organic Matter Reactions Involving Herbicides in Soil

    Documentary evidence is presented in support of the view that organic matter plays a major role in the adsorption of herbicides in soil, and that organic matter content is usually the soil factor most directly related to herbicidal behavior. Major attention is given to the nature and origin of humic and fulvic acids, with special emphasis being given to the types of reactive sites responsible

  • Cement Chemistry The Concrete Portal

    Figure 9 depicts the relative sizes of pores in concrete. At one end of the scale are entrapped air voids, while on the lower extreme are the interparticle spaces between sheets of CSH. Figure 9. Ranges of pore sizes in concrete. Chemistry of special cements Expansive cement These are cements based on mixtures of Portland cement clinker with expansive compounds. Upon hydration, the typical

  • The Physics and Chemistry of Concrete

    condensed matter theory (physics and chemistry) being applied to complex microstructures • Key for random materials like PCC and AC? Computational materials science based on sound materials science experiments. m mm μm nm The Length Scales of Concrete Main NIST materials research Note: Durability prediction requires information at all length scales Early stage research Structural

  • Concrete Wikipedia

    Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. In the past, limebased cement binders, such as lime putty, were often used but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement or with Portland cement to form Portland cement concrete (named for its visual

  • The effect of organic matter on the setting of soil‐cement

    Later experiments with a natural organic sandy soil showed that the retardation is probably due to an ‘active’ fraction of the organic matter, which affects the setting of cement by adsorbing calcium ions liberated during hydration. The ‘active’ material is produced in the surface soil, where it is associated with a low pH; it is subsequently leached into the subsoil, where it becomes adsorbed as a complex with

  • Concrete: Demonstration 2

    The color of the liquid will indicate whether or not the aggregate contains too much organic matter. A colorless liquid indicates a clean aggregate, free from organic matter. A straw-colored solution, not darker than apple-cider vinegar, indicates some organic matter bur not enough to be seriously objectionable. Darker colors mean that it contains too much organic matter and should not be used unless it is

  • Organic concrete We Make Money Not Art

    Organic concrete BETÃO ORGÂNICO, by Lisbon-based architects and designers e-studio, is an organic concrete developed to conciliate the vegetable and the inorganic in a single element. Exploiting concrete’s capacity to retain humidity, the material functions as a battery in which the water is released during dry periods. Applied as a surface, organic concrete makes it possible to obtain

  • Types of Chemical Attacks on Concrete Structures

    When the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere penetrates into concrete and reacted with calcium hydroxide to form calcium carbonate then this process is called carbonation. In general concrete with high alkali content form a protective layer around the reinforcement. But when the carbon dioxide changes into dilute carbonic acid it reduces the alkalinity as a result the corrosion of reinforcement takes place.

  • Chemical Admixtures The Concrete Portal

    A chemical admixture is any chemical additive to the concrete mixture that enhances the properties of concrete in the fresh or hardened state. It does not typically include paints and protective coatings (for steel or concrete). ACI 116R defines the term admixture as “a material other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement, and fiber reinforcement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and added to

  • Organic Matter Reactions Involving Herbicides in Soil

    Documentary evidence is presented in support of the view that organic matter plays a major role in the adsorption of herbicides in soil, and that organic matter content is usually the soil factor most directly related to herbicidal behavior. Major attention is given to the nature and origin of humic and fulvic acids, with special emphasis being given to the types of reactive sites responsible

  • Chemical attack in concrete SlideShare

    29.09.2014· Decay of organic matters in marshy lands, shallow lakes often leads to formation of H2S which can be transformed into sulphuric acid by bacterial action. Therefore sulphate attack is common occurrence in natural and industrial situations. 8. Sulphate Attack The main reactions of sulphate attack on concrete are as under; 1. Formation of sulphoaluminates (ettringite) by reaction of sulphate

  • Cement Chemistry The Concrete Portal

    Figure 9 depicts the relative sizes of pores in concrete. At one end of the scale are entrapped air voids, while on the lower extreme are the interparticle spaces between sheets of CSH. Figure 9. Ranges of pore sizes in concrete. Chemistry of special cements Expansive cement These are cements based on mixtures of Portland cement clinker with expansive compounds. Upon hydration, the typical

  • Carbonation of concrete Understanding Cement

    Carbonation is the result of the dissolution of CO 2 in the concrete pore fluid and this reacts with calcium from calcium hydroxide and calcium silicate hydrate to form calcite (CaCO 3). Aragonite may form in hot conditions. Within a few hours, or a day or two at most, the surface of fresh concrete will have reacted with CO 2 from the air. Gradually, the process penetrates deeper into the concrete at a rate

  • The Physics and Chemistry of Concrete

    condensed matter theory (physics and chemistry) being applied to complex microstructures • Key for random materials like PCC and AC? Computational materials science based on sound materials science experiments. m mm μm nm The Length Scales of Concrete Main NIST materials research Note: Durability prediction requires information at all length scales Early stage research Structural